8 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES

Theory Of Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner

Multiple Intelligences

Howard Gardner is best known for his theory of multiple intelligence, a critique of the notion that there exists but a single human intelligence that can be adequately assessed by standard psychometric instruments.

The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability.

Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are only very weak correlations between these. For example, the theory predicts that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task. The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication.

  may best learn to multiply through a different approach,
  may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or
  may even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process.

Such a fundamentally deeper understanding can result in what looks like slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite a less detailed understanding of the process of multiplication. The theory has been met with mixed responses. Traditional intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different tasks and aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner’s theory predicts. Nevertheless many educationist support the practical value of the approaches suggested by the theory.

The theory of multiple intelligences is Howard Gardner’s theory that proposes that people are not born with all of the intelligence they will ever have. It says that intelligence can be learned throughout life. Also, it claims that everyone is intelligent in at least eight different ways and can develop each aspect of intelligence to an average level of competency.

Visual-Spatial

Visual-Spatial think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, texts with pictures/charts/graphs.

Bodily-kinesthetic

Bodily-kinesthetic use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They communicate well through body language and be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.

Musical

Musical show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.

Interpersonal

Interpersonal understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail.

Intrapersonal

Intrapersonal understanding one’s own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They’re in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through independent study and introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most independent of the learners.

Linguistic

Linguistic using words effectively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.

Logical - Mathematical – Reasoning

Logical - Mathematical – Reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.

Naturalist

Naturalist Intelligence involves understanding the natural world of plants and animals, noticing their characteristics and categorizing them. It generally involves keen observation of environment and surrounding and the ability to classify other things as well.